People have become accustomed to the convenience of having hot water in their homes. What most don’t realize is that a water heater can be a ticking time bomb waiting to explode. A neglected water heater could explode, destroying their home in the process.
So can a water heater explode? Electric and gas water heaters can explode if the pressure inside the tank is too high, failure of the temperature & pressure relief valve, or improper installation. With gas water heaters, flammable vapors or a gas leak can cause an explosion if a spark ignites the gas or flammable vapors.
The risk of explosion in modern water heaters is minimized through various safety features. However, most water heaters are not maintained well, and the risk is still present and very real.
Modern water heaters are equipped with a safety feature called the Temperature & Pressure Relief Valve (T&P Valve). These valves require service to stay in proper working condition.
In this article, we will examine:
- The 3 main causes of water heater explosions – the three main factors that cause water heaters to blow up.
- 3 warning signs your water heater may explode – three signs that your water heater is in need of service and at risk of an explosion.
- 7 ways to prevent your water heater from exploding – Seven things you can do today to make sure your family is safe from a water heater explosion.
3 Main Causes of Water Heater Explosions
There are three leading causes of water heater explosions. These are high pressure, gas leaks, and improper installation. Let’s look closer at each of these.
High Pressure Inside the Water Heater
High pressure inside the water heater can affect both gas and electric water heaters. Increased pressure occurs when the water inside the tank is heated. As the water heats up, it expands, building pressure inside the tank.
So what can cause high pressure to buildup inside the tank:
- A temperature & pressure relief valve that fails to open and release pressure
- A failure of the high limit switch on the upper thermostat
- A water heater that has not been properly maintained
Failure of a Temperature & Pressure Relief Valve
If water pressure inside the tank becomes too high, it is released through a safety feature called the temperature & pressure relief valve or T&P valve. All modern water heaters are equipped with this safety feature. However, some older water heaters do not have this feature.
If the temperature and pressure relief valve fails or is blocked, the pressure has no way to release, resulting in your water heater eventually blowing up. As the water inside the water heater heats up, it begins to expand. If the pressure from water expansions and gets too high, the T&P valve opens to release pressure.
Failure of the High Limit Switch
The high limit switch is a large red button located above the upper thermostat. If the thermostat is not regulating power to the heating elements, the water temperature will continue to rise to an unsafe level. The high limit switch will trip to cut power to the water heater thermostat and heating element.
The high limit switch is located on the upper thermostat and is designed to trip when the water heater’s water exceeds 180 degrees. However, if the high limit switch were to fail to trip, the pressure inside the water heater could cause the water heater to explode due to increased pressure.
An improbable scenario, as it would take a 1-2 punch of the high limit switch failure and the failure (or blocked) temperature and pressure relief valve to coincide. This is an improbable scenario. However, older water heaters may lack one or both of these safety features.
Lack of Water Heater Maintenance
As your water heater ages, minerals deposits in hard water begin to build up inside the tank. This sediment settles at the bottom of the tank. Left unattended, this sediment hardens and will eventually corrode the inner lining, thus weakening the walls of the water heater.
As the walls inside the water heater tank weaken, they become susceptible to explosions even under normal pressure levels that may not trigger the T&P valve or high limit switch.
Fortunately, with routine water heater maintenance, you can solve these problems and even double the lifespan of your water heater. See our article Water Heater Maintenance Tips to 2X Your Tanks Lifespan.
Flammable Liquids, Natural Gas, or Propane Gas Leaks
This only affects natural gas or propane-powered water heaters. Electric water heaters do not have a gas supply and do not utilize open flames to heat water.
Gas and propane-powered water heaters have an incoming gas line, internal gas lines, and fittings where gas leaks can develop. A gas leak can be identified by a “rotten egg” smell coming from around the bottom of the water heater.
Natural gas and propane are colorless and odorless gas. A harmless chemical called mercaptan is added to give gas a distinctive “rotten egg” smell. This helps homeowners identify when a gas leak is present.
If a gas leak develops in or around the water heater, even a tiny ignition flame or electrical spark can ignite the gas, causing a massive explosion.
The same is true for other flammable liquids often stored in garages like gasoline, kerosene, paint thinner, and other solvents, which can be ignited accidentally by the pilot light of a gas water heater.
All gas or propane water heaters should have a gas detector nearby. We recommend the Kidde AC Plug-in Carbon Monoxide and Explosive Gas Detector Alarm.
Improper Water Heater Installations
Many homeowners like doing things themselves. It’s good to save money on home projects. However, unless you have plumbing experience, you should leave water heater installations to a licensed plumber.
Some of the improper installations we see include:
- Gas water heaters not installed on the proper 18″ stand. The purpose of the water heater stand is to get the ignition source off the floor where other flammable liquids may be stored.
- Gas water heaters installed in garages without a stop post to prevent cars from hitting the water heater and causing an explosion.
- Gas lines without drip leg sediment traps. Drip leg sediment traps help to prevent sediment from clogging gas lines and inlets at the water heater. Many gas lines on older water heaters commonly do not have a drip leg sediment trap.
- Temperature & pressure relief valves (T&P Valves) that are installed incorrectly. T&P valves serve to monitor and relieve pressure from inside the water heater. These valves should be installed in a downward direction with a discharge pipe directed to the exterior of the house. These valves should never be capped or plugged.
- Water heaters installed in a location that prevents access for service and maintenance.
3 Warning Signs Your Water Heater May Explode
A Leaking T&P Valve
The number one warning sign that your water heater could explode is a leaky T&P Valve. When too much pressure builds inside the tank, the temperature & pressure relief valve can discharge hot water. A leaky valve or a valve that routinely releases is a tell-tell sign a problem exists.
This T&P valve will leak due to proper operation if too much pressure exists inside the tank. If you see this valve leaking or routinely discharging water, you should immediately have the water heater serviced by a licensed plumber. You may need to lower the temperature setting or replace the T&P valve.
Rotten Egg Smell
If you have a gas water heater and have a rotten egg smell around the outside of the water heater, you likely have a gas leak.
Natural gas and propane have a sulfur or rotten egg-type smell. This is done so on purpose so that in the event a gas leak occurs. It can easily be detected before an explosion occurs. The odor you smell is ethyl mercaptan added to natural gas and propane to make the gas detectable by smell.
If you suspect your water heater has a gas leak, you should immediately turn the gas off to the water heater and call in a licensed plumber to inspect and make any necessary repairs.
Unlike natural gas and propane gas, carbon monoxide gas is a colorless, odorless gas that is a by-product of the combustion process. This gas is hazardous and can only be detected by specialized equipment. You can’t see it or smell it. Carbon monoxide can cause sickness, debilitating injury, and even death.
Insider’s Tip: Consider investing in an Explosive Gas Detector to install near your gas water heater. The Kidde AC Plug-in Carbon Monoxide and Explosive Gas Detector Alarm protects against Natural Gas, Propane Gas, and Carbon Monoxide. These explosive gas detectors are inexpensive and easy to install.
Gurgling, Knocking, or Popping Sounds
Gurgling, knocking, and popping sounds from inside the water heater signify that sediment has built up and hardened inside the tank. These sounds are caused by the water becoming trapped under sediment. As the water heats up and expands, the hardened sediment moves around inside the water heater.
One of the causes is when the anode rod, a sacrificial rod located inside the water heater, has been eaten away by acidic sediment inside the tank. Without a line of defense, the harsh sediment begins to attack the internal tank. This, in turn, weakens the inner tank making it more susceptible to an explosion from increases in pressure inside the water heater.
Smelly Hot Water
Speaking of anode rods, if your hot water smells like “rotten eggs,” the most likely cause is anaerobic bacteria present inside the water heater that reacts with sulfur, magnesium, and aluminum sacrificial anode rods inside the water heater. As the anode rod deteriorates, hydrogen sulfide gas is produced, creating a rotten egg smell in the hot water supply.
If your hot water smells bad, the sacrificial anode rod is likely completely eaten away. Once the sacrificial anode rod is completely sacrificed, minerals in hard water begin to attack the inner lining of the water heater.
This creates weak spots in your water heater. These weak spots can rupture under high pressure inside the tank, even if it is within the boundaries of the T&P valve or high limit switch.
How to Prevent Your Water Heater from Exploding
There are several ways that you can prevent your water heater from exploding. The number one line of defense is proper routine maintenance. Let’s explore some of the actions you can take to protect your water heater and property.
Drain & Flush Your Water Heater
Water heaters require routine draining and flushing as part of the water heaters’ regular maintenance. This maintenance is relatively easy to do but is often overlooked by homeowners.
Draining and flushing your water heater removes sediment that has built up inside the internal tank. This sediment needs to be removed to prevent the inner tank from deteriorating.
It is recommended that draining and flushing your water heater should be done on an annual basis. The process is relatively simple and takes about two hours of your time.
See our step-by-step article Water Heater Maintenance Tips to 2X Your Tanks Lifespan for details on water heater maintenance.
Inspect Your T&P Valve
You should check the temperature and pressure relief valve a minimum of twice a year. However, most people never do this. Without routine checks, the T&P valve can clog with sediment preventing it from opening when needed.
The valve is typically located on the top or top side of the water heater. Make sure the T&P valve is not capped off or impeded in away way. The temperature and pressure relief valve should have a discharge pipe that terminates approximately 6 inches above the drain pan or to the house’s exterior.
If the T&P valve does not have a discharge pipe, you should call a plumber to have one installed. The discharge pipe protects you and your family from scalding hot water exiting the T&P valve unexpectedly. Without a discharge pipe to direct the flow of scalding hot water, severe burning can occur as water sprays from the valve uncontrollably.
Before testing the T&P valve, be sure you wear gloves and a long sleeve shirt to protect your hands and arms from scalding hot water.
To check the T&P valve, place a bucket under the discharge pipe (if discharges above the drain pan). Lift the lever to open the T&P valve for approximately 5 to 10 seconds. You should hear water exiting through the discharge pipe into the bucket or to the exterior.
Check Your Anode Rod
The sacrificial anode rod attracts corrosive particles inside the water heater and acts as a shield of defense to protect the internal tank. The anode rod protects the inner tank from rust which could weaken the water heater which could cause it to explode.
The anode rod is located inside the water heater should be replaced about once every three years. There are three types of anode rods available.
Aluminum – Aluminum anode rods are best suited for hard water. The aluminum anode rod can withstand harder water better than other types. Aluminum may be a health problem and is not recommended for drinking.
Magnesium – Magnesium anode rods are the most common type of anode rod. They are more suited for areas where water is softer. Magnesium anode rods don’t last very, mainly where hard water is present. Most water heaters come equipped with magnesium anode rods.
Zinc – Zinc anode rods are zinc-aluminum alloy anode rods. The ratio of zinc to aluminum is very low, about 1:10. Zinc is added to prevent sulfur smells in the hot water supply. If you have a sulfur/rotten egg smell in your hot water supply, you can switch out the aluminum anode rod for a zinc anode rod to minimalize the scent.
Replacing the anode rod is a relatively straightforward procedure; however, if you are unfamiliar with water heaters or working with water heaters, you recommend calling a licensed plumber to do this.
Lower Your Temperature
Electric water heater thermostats are located behind cover panels on the front of the water heater. These thermostats are typically factory set at 125°.
The same holds for gas water heaters, except the thermostat, is located on the control module located on the water heater’s front. Once the pilot is lit, the control knob is turned to the ON setting and the desired temperature.
Some people adjust the settings as high as 140° or higher. Keeping the thermostat on this high setting will reduce the lifespan of your water heater and could cause frequent discharge from the T&P valve.
It is recommended that you decrease the temperature to 110-120°. This reduces the wear and tear on the water heater and reduces the pressure inside the tank. This setting should still provide ample amounts of hot water.
Expansion tanks are required on many municipal water supply systems now. However, many water heaters existed before the change took place. An expansion tank is a small tank installed on open water systems that protect the system from excessive pressure.
Expansion tanks are partially filled with air, absorbing the shock caused by the water hammer and absorbing excess water pressure caused by thermal expansion.
If you do not have an expansion tank on your water heater, you should contact a plumber to see if you need one. For more information, see our article Are Water Heater Expansion Tanks Required?
Installation by a Licensed Plumber
One of the most common problems we find is the improper installation of water heaters. It is relatively easy to go to a home store, purchase a new water heater, and install it yourself.
However, most DIY installs we find are done incorrectly. It is recommended that a licensed plumber do the installation of a new water heater. This ensures that the installation meets current code requirements that the homeowner may not be aware of.
You should install gas water heaters on an 18” stand to protect the ignition source. Gas water heaters inside garages should also have a pipe bollard or approved vehicle barrier installed to prevent a car from hitting the water heater. Most electric to gas water heater conversions lack one or both of these requirements.
Many local building codes now also require expansion tanks, seismic strapping, and drain pans which were likely not part of the old water heater installation.
Check for Gas Leaks
If you have a gas or propane water heater, you should routinely check around the water heater for gas leaks. If you detect a rotten egg odor around the water heater, you should immediately shut the gas or propane off and contact a licensed plumber.
As discussed earlier, natural gas and propane have an ethyl mercaptan additive to make the gas detectable by smell. Installing an explosive gas detector is recommended.
The Kidde AC Plug-in Carbon Monoxide and Explosive Gas Detector Alarm is a great option that is easy to install. This explosive gas detector features:
- Protection against carbon monoxide and explosive gasses.
- A loud 85-decibel pulsing alarm will sound to alert you to a potential problem.
- Displays the level of carbon monoxide the unit is sensing.
- Test/Reset Button – Tests unit’s electronic circuitry operation and allows you to immediately silence the alarm
- Three convenient mounting options
The risk of a water heater explosion is not something that one should worry about nightly. Armed with some preventative maintenance and knowledge of the warning signs, you can rest easy that your home and family are safe.