Best Air Purifier for Mold, Viruses, and Bacteria for 2022

best air purifier for mold

The best air purifier for mold, bacteria, and viruses can improve your health by cleaning the indoor air you breathe. If you are concerned about these contaminants, you may consider purchasing an air purifier. We’ve spoken with medical professionals and compiled a list of the best air purifier for mold, viruses, and bacteria.

Best Air Purifier for Mold with UV Light

Air purifiers with built-in UV-C emit a short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) that destroys mold, bacteria, and viruses captured during air filtration. The goal is to reduce indoor air pollutants by up to 99.99%.

Many of the best air purifiers for mold use a combination of HEPA, Carbon, Ionizer, and UV-C light. While UV-C light is not essential to air filtration, it kills viruses, bacteria, and mold spores on the HEPA and carbon filters, which reduces mold exposure during air purifier cleaning and filter changes.

Medify MA-40-UV Air Purifier with True HEPA H14 Filter + UV Light
$319.99
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in Large Rooms up to 1600 SF/hr
  • Purifies up to 840SF every 30 minutes
  • Medical-Grade H14 HyperHEPA Filtration
  • Removes 99.99% of All Airbourne Particles
  • Eliminates Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • Extremely Energy Efficient
  • Ultra-Quiet 3-Speed Fan as low as 44dB
  • UV Light Destroys Mold, Viruses, and Bacteria
  • Filter-Life Monitoring
  • 0-8 Hour Timer
  • 1-Year Limited Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:24 am GMT

Medify MA-40-UV Air Purifier with True HEPA H14 Filter + UV Light

The Medify MA-40-UV Air Purifier is a white-colored air purifier that weighs 20.8 pounds, enabling you to carry it around quickly to wherever it’s needed.

It has CARB, Energy Star, and ETL certifications, assuring you that it has met the set criteria for safety and energy efficiency. So, you are assured of safe use and lower energy bills in the long term. And as long as you use Medify replacement filters, the product will remain backed by the USA-registered lifetime warranty, giving you excellent value.

The air purifier is for large rooms. For example, when operating the air cleaner at fan setting 3 in a room with ceilings of eight feet, the device can clean up to 840 square feet of air every 30 minutes.

Also, the Medify MA-40 produces UV light, which enhances its air purification capabilities significantly. And its HEPA H14 filter can eliminate up to 99.99% of harmful airborne spores and other allergens that can cause many health issues, such as pet dander, odors, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) up to 0.1 microns in size.

In addition, you can use the available touch control panel to enhance your convenience. It comes with a 0–8-hour timer to schedule air filtration cycles, a filter replacement indicator, and a child lock, which prevents children and pets from interfering with the device’s function.

You can also use the panel to set three different fan speeds depending on your needs. At the lowest setting, the air cleaner will produce only 46dB of noise, virtually silent. But even at the highest setting, it only has 66dB of noise, which is tolerable. And when you need to sleep, the sleep mode will dim the panel lights so you can be comfortable.

These benefits make the Medify MA-40-UV the best air purifier for mold, viruses, and bacteria.

Recommended: Best Air Purifier for Pets with Tips from Vets & Medical Doctors

InvisiClean Aura II Air Purifier
$249.95 $199.99
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in Large Rooms up to 1276 SF/hr
  • Purifies up to 319 SF every 15 minutes
  • True HEAP H13 Filtration
  • Removes 99.98% of All Airbourne Particles
  • Eliminates Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • Extremely Energy Efficient
  • Ultra-Quiet 4-Speed Fan as low as 31dB
  • UV Light Destroys Mold, Viruses, and Bacteria
  • Filter-Life Monitoring
  • 2,4,8 Hour Timer
  • 3-Year Limited Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:59 am GMT

InvisiClean Aura II Air Purifier with UV Light

The InvisiClean Aura II Air Purifier with UV Light has a coverage area of 638 square feet every 30 minutes and has a clean air delivery rate (CADR) of 170 CFM or 289m³ per hour. So, it’s suitable for medium-sized spaces or large rooms.

Also, the cleaner has a low EMF radiation DC motor, which delivers double the air output by using 82% less electricity, enhancing its energy efficiency. And it is CARB Certified & SGS Tested, offering additional assurance concerning its quality.

In addition, the InvisiClean Aura comes with a true H13 HEPA air filter, which removes up to 99.98% of allergens, including mold particles, dust, pollen, Influenza A H1N1 Virus, and E. Coli Bacteria, giving you much cleaner air. Also, it incorporates an activated carbon pre-filter, an optional Ionizer, and a UV-C Light feature to enhance its air filtration capabilities by killing harmful airborne spores and improving air freshness.

You can take advantage of the product’s 4-fan setting to determine the rate at which it cleans the room and the noise levels. If you opt for the ultra-efficient silent mode, you can use the purifier even in a nursery without worrying about disturbing your child.

TruSens Air Purifier with UV-C Light
$389.00 $299.00
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in Large Rooms up to 1425 SF/hr
  • Purifies up to 750SF every 30 minutes
  • True HEPA Filtration
  • Removes 99.7% of All Airbourne Particles
  • Eliminates Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • Extremely Energy Efficient
  • Ultra-Quiet 4-Speed Fan as low as 39dB
  • UV Light Destroys Mold, Viruses, and Bacteria
  • Filter-Life Monitoring
  • 2,4,8,12 Hour Timer
  • 2-Year Limited Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:59 am GMT

TruSens Air Purifier with UV-C Light

The TruSens Air Purifier with UV-C Light weighs only 18 pounds, making it highly portable and suitable for multiple spaces. And it is designed to clean up to 750 square feet every 30 minutes.

The air purifier uses a dual approach to deal with allergens in the air. First, it incorporates a 360-degree DuPont True HEPA filtration, which captures air pollutants like viruses and some types of VOC gases. Then it uses ultraviolet light to kill smaller particles, such as bacteria, airborne mold spores, and germs trapped within the filter.

And thanks to PureDirect proprietary technology, clean air splits into two streams to enhance purification within the space. The bi-directional airflow improves clean air distribution by up to 24%.

Also, the TruSens air purifier has a color-coded LED panel with simple touch controls. You can use it to determine the status of the filter replacement indicator and set the fan speeds, UV mode, and auto-timer.

You will also enjoy the benefit of the remote SensorPod, which will monitor indoor air quality. Then the air quality sensor will communicate with the air purifier and adjust the fan speed via remote control so that your air is cleaned appropriately.

best air purifier for mold

Best Air Filter for Mold – No UV Light

As previously stated, UV light is not essential to air filtration, and most air purifiers don’t have UV lights. Despite not having UV lights, these are some of the best medical-grade air purifiers. These air purifiers have multi-stage filtration that removes at least 99.97% of air pollutants and have thousands of 5-star reviews.

Below is a list of the best air purifiers that could alleviate your black mold problem without UV light.

Medify MA-40 Air Purifier with H13 True HEPA Filter
$349.00 $269.99
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in Large Rooms up to 1600 SF/hr
  • Purifies up to 840SF every 30 minutes
  • Medical-Grade H13 HyperHEPA Filtration
  • Removes 99.9% of All Airbourne Particles
  • Eliminates Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • Extremely Energy Efficient
  • Ultra-Quiet 3-Speed Fan as low as 44dB
  • Filter-Life Monitoring
  • 0-8 Hour Timer
  • 1-Year Limited Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 07:09 am GMT

Medify MA-40 Air Purifier with H13 True HEPA Filter

The Medify MA-40 Air Purifier provides coverage for 840 square feet every 30 minutes when operating at the third fan setting. So, it’s perfect for large rooms. And it only weighs 15 pounds, significantly enhancing its portability.

Thanks to the H13 HEPA filter, the air cleaner eliminates 99.9% of harmful air pollutants up to 0.1 microns. So, it works on pollen, smog, pet dander, and smoke. And you get to choose from the three available fan settings, depending on your air quality needs.

But despite the variable fan settings, the Medify MA-40 is relatively silent. It produces 46dB of noise at the lowest setting and 66DB at the highest. And you can even put it on sleep mode, which dims the appliance’s panel lights, and allows everyone to enjoy fresh air without anyone noticing the device exists.

Other attractive features the product offers include a 0-8-hour timer, which enables the scheduling of air purification, and a sleep touch panel. The latter allows you to set the fan speeds and sleep mode easily. And you can also access the child lock mechanism that prevents children and pets from interfering with how the air cleaner works. Also, you can spot the filter replacement indicator from the panel.

It is worth noting that the Medify MA-40 air purifier has ETL, CARB, and Energy Star certifications, which assure safety, quality, and energy efficiency. Furthermore, it offers a lifetime warranty.

This is the same Medify model above as our best air purifier for mold, except it does not have the UV-C light and has an H13 filter versus an H14 filter.

IQAir HealthPro Plus Air Purifier - Medical Grade H14 HyperHEPA Filter
$899.00
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in Large Rooms up to 1125 SF
  • Medical-Grade H14 HyperHEPA Filtration
  • Removes 99.97% of All Airbourne Particles
  • Eliminates Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • Filters 300 Cubic Feet per Minute
  • Extremely Energy Efficient
  • Programmable
  • Filter-Life Monitoring
  • 10-Year Limited Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:59 am GMT

IQAir HealthPro Plus Air Purifier – Medical Grade H14 HyperHEPA Filter

The IQAir HealthPro Plus Air Purifier weighs 35 pounds and can clean up to 1125 sq ft. It eliminates at least 99.97% of air pollutants and has a 10-year warranty. Therefore, it allows you to enjoy its superior performance for many years while addressing any issues without digging deeper into your pocket to fix them. And it also has a CARB certification.

The medical-grade H14 HyperHEPA Filter is responsible for the air purifier’s efficacy. It eliminates up to 99.995% of harmful airborne particles as small as 0.003 microns, offering a high level of protection from allergens like mold, wildfire smoke, formaldehyde, other toxic chemicals, and pet dander. And that is why it was selected by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to safeguard people from Covid-19-causing SARS-CoV-1 & SARS-CoV-2 viruses.

And to enhance its effectiveness, the IQAir HealthPro Plus also utilizes two other filters. These include the pre-filter for large particles in the air and the activated charcoal filter, which traps odors and gases.

It is worth noting that the air cleaner has been designed for maximum silence regardless of the fan speed you select. First, the fan is placed centrally, allowing the filters to absorb noise. Secondly, it consists of double-walled housing to reduce noise and rubber suspension pads that isolate the housing’s motor vibrations.

The IQAir is the best air purifier for mold that doesn’t have a UV-C light.

Alen BreatheSmart 75i Air Purifier
$769.00
Pros:
  • Covers 1300 SF/hr, 750 SF /30 min, and 282 SF/13 min
  • Removes Airborne Pet Dander, Hair, and Odors
  • LED Color Display
  • Smart Phone Controls
  • Smart Sensor Detects Air Pollutants
  • Three-Stage H13 Pure HEPA Filter
  • Captures 99.99% of Particles to 0.1 Microns
  • Lifetime Warranty with Filter Subscription
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:49 am GMT

Alen BreatheSmart 75i Air Purifier

The Alen BreatheSmart 75i Air Purifier weighs 27 pounds, allowing you to move it around quickly. In addition, it is designed for relatively large spaces and can clean up to 1300 square feet every 30 minutes. For that reason, it is an excellent choice for bars, hotels, casinos, classrooms, doctor’s offices, and lofts. And any other open-concept space.

The smart air purifier employs several types of filters. The most important one is the HEPA filter, which eliminates airborne particles like pet dander, pollen, and mildew. And that medical-grade 3-Stage H13 Pure HEPA filtration system can eliminate up to 99.99% of particles as small as 0.1 microns.

Secondly, the air cleaner uses an activated carbon layer that weighs 3.6 pounds, which helps to remove wildfire smoke, VOCs, and cigarette smoke from the air, making it fresher and healthy for anyone with respiratory problems.

In addition, the Alen BreatheSmart purifier has a smart sensor feature that automatically detects the air quality in your space and adjusts the fan settings accordingly. You can view its status on the colored LED panel. And the auto mode will ensure the purifier runs continuously if you prefer.

AirDoctor AD3000 4-in-1 Air Purifier for Large Rooms
$629.00 $519.00
Pros:
  • Cleans up to 2552 SF/hr, 1276 SF/30 min, 638 SF/15 min
  • 3-Stage UltraHEPA Filtration
  • Removes Particles as low as 0.003 microns
  • Air Quality Sensor
  • 4-Speed Fan
  • Auto Mode Fan Operation
  • Whisper-Quiet Fan Motor
  • Limitied 1-Year Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:49 am GMT

AirDoctor AD3000 4-in-1 Air Purifier for Large Rooms

The AirDoctor AD3000 4-in-1 Air Purifier cleans large rooms with a square footage of up to 1,274 sq. ft. every 30 minutes. So, it’s very appropriate for large rooms.

The product has a three-stage filtration system, including the UltraHEPA filter and proprietary dual-action Carbon VOC filter. The former can remove air pollutants as small as 0.003 microns, making the device highly effective in dealing with bacteria, mold, and viruses. On the other hand, the double-action carbon filter removes harmful VOCs from the air and ensures the air smells fresh.

If you opt for the auto mode, the air purifier will automate the filtration process to be compatible with the current air quality. But you have four fan speeds to choose from if you prefer manual adjustments to suit your purification needs. However, regardless of your fan settings, the appliance will be 30% more silent, thanks to its whisper jet fans.

Levoit Air Purifier with H13 True HEPA Filter
$119.99
Pros:
  • Purifies Air in a 300 SF Area
  • 3-in-1 Filtration with True HEPA H13 Filter
  • Removes Pet Hair, dander, and Odors
  • Check Filter Indicator
  • 2, 4, or 8-Hour Timer
  • 1-Year Warranty
Buy Now on Amazon Buy Now on Walmart
We earn a commission if you purchase at no additional cost to you.
11/10/2022 06:49 am GMT

Levoit Air Purifier with H13 True HEPA Filter

The Levoit Air Purifier with H13 True HEPA Filter has a very compact design and weighs only 9.3 pounds. Therefore, it can fit well within small spaces, and you can move it around very easily.

However, its compact size doesn’t affect its performance. The air cleaner can cover 300 square feet within 18 minutes and has a CADR rating of 130 CFM or 221 m3/h, making it very efficient for its size. And thanks to its energy efficiency, even if you run it 24/7, you’ll only spend $1.66 per week on energy bills.

And if you prefer an appliance that doesn’t produce ozone emissions, the Levoit air purifier is the best solution for your needs. It doesn’t use UV-C light and is entirely ozone free. Instead, it works by using a three-layer filtration system.

Its pre-filter provides the first defense by removing large particles like lint and fur. And you can wash it severally, reducing your replacement costs. Then the second high-efficiency activated carbon filter will remove the bad odors and toxic fumes in the air, leaving it smelling fresh. After that, the H13 HEPA filter will capture at least 99.94% of allergens as small as 0.3 microns, significantly enhancing air quality and making it safe to breathe.

Also, if you hate noise, the product comes in handy because it only produces 23dB of noise, which is silent and tolerable. In addition, you can switch off its display lights, further enhancing its sleep-friendliness.

If convenience is important to you, the Levoit air purifier has a timer that allows you to schedule the air purification times so you can use it with minimal supervision. And if your filter is no longer working as it should, the check filter indicator will notify you of the need to replace it, which may be every six to eight months.

Medify air purifier

What to Consider When Choosing the Best Air Purifier for Mold

Mold is a type of fungus that typically grows on any available organic matter, such as leather, carpet, drywall, wooden floors, paper, etc. You will likely deal with mold growth if you live in a warm, damp area with high humidity. And black mold is a type of mold that is common indoors, polluting the air via mold spores.

EnviroKlenz SVP George Negron states, “Mold growth has much to do with air quality in your home. Factors like airflow, ventilation, and humidity can easily determine whether a space in your home is suitable for mold growth. Not to mention, mold spores travel through the air before attaching to an optimal surface.”

The more mold you have in your home, the more likely they trigger your immune system, causing allergic reactions. Some health issues that mold allergies cause include asthma attacks, shortness of breath, skin irritation, a runny nose, etc.

So, once you experience such symptoms and detect a musty smell, it’s time to find the right type of air purifier to deal with mold spores. Below are the factors you can consider to find the best air purifier for mold and dust mites.

Coverage Area

When dealing with indoor air pollution, you need to consider the size of the room. For that reason, you must measure the length and width of your space and obtain the area.

Smaller rooms require a lower capacity air cleaner than bigger ones. But, on the other hand, if you choose a lower-capacity purifier for a large space, it won’t eliminate all the mold spores in the air, leaving you vulnerable.

Usually, air purifiers are rated based on the square footage they cover and the number of air exchanges within one hour. For example, the best HEPA air purifier for mold will provide about four air exchanges per hour. So, it would be best to look for terms such as “X square feet every 30 minutes,” etc. The larger the value, the more capable the device can purify the air.

Typically, those that cover under 300 square feet are small, between 300 and 699 square feet are medium, and between 700 and 1,000 square feet are large.

Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR)

CADR helps determine how effective an air purifier is based on the volume of clean air it produces per minute relative to the room size. And it is usually measured at the highest fan speed and determined based on tests done by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM).

The Environmental Protection Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration both endorse CADR, expressed as cubic feet per minute (CFM) or cubic meters per min (m³/min). And the higher the CFM value, the higher the device’s performance capability.

Moe Bedard of Mold Safe Solutions says, “When shopping for a HEPA air purifier, look for one with a high CADR rating. This rating indicates the amount of airflow the purifier can deliver and can be used to compare different models. Choose a model rated for your specific needs – for example, if you’re looking for an air purifier for a large room, choose one with a high CADR rating.”

Ideally, an air purifier should have at least 150 CFM. But the best air purifier for mold may produce 350 CFM or more.

air purifier for mold and viruses

Filtration Mechanism

Because mold, viruses, and bacteria are a particular size, you need to consider the filtration system within the air purifier and its effectiveness. And there are several that are worth checking.

First, you should look for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. These filters have a design that eliminates at least 99.97% harmful airborne particles with a size of 0.3 microns, including bacterial mold and pollen. But some HEPA air purifiers are more effective and can eliminate smaller particles.

Tim Swackahmmer, CEO of Mold Medics, says, “HEPA filtration is a must. HEPA or High-Efficiency Particulate Air filters are rated to remove 99.97% of airborne particles over .3 microns in size. This results in excellent filtration of mold, bacteria, dust, pollen, and other allergens.”

Second, you should consider whether the mold air purifiers use UV-C light. Research shows that UV-C light may kill some types of molds, bacteria, and viruses, disinfecting your home. For that reason, having a device that produces it may enhance the purity of your air.

An activated carbon layer is also worth having in any filtration system. It uses the process of adsorption to trap harmful gas molecules and remove them from the air. If your space has musty odors or foul smells, such a filter comes in handy.

It is worth noting that filters don’t work into perpetuity. So, it would be best to think about the lifespan of an air purifier’s filtration system. Some can be removed, cleaned, and reused, extending their life. Generally, the longer the air cleaner filters last, the lower their replacement costs will be.

Sarah Lavine with EnviroHome states, “HEPA filters should be replaced regularly to work efficiently and provide the correct level of filtration. It is not enough to have a HEPA filter, you must maintain it as well.”

https://youtu.be/hnM1Fv1wzrg

Noise levels

Many air purifiers have fans, which help to move the air in circulation. Unfortunately, such components tend to be noisy while working. And that could be an issue if you prefer devices with silent operations.

On average, standard air purifiers produce about 30 to 70DB. The higher the noise levels, the more bothersome it will be when you need peace. However, if an air cleaner has several fan speed settings, you can adjust its air purification speed and noise levels, depending on your air quality and concentration needs.

Product Quality

Air purifiers with CARB, ETL, and Energy Star certifications provide additional assurance concerning quality. Such marks mean the products have passed the strict safety and energy efficiency requirements. Therefore, choosing the best air purifier for mold will give you excellent value.

Portability

If you intend to move your air purifier from one room to another, depending on where you are at any given point, then think about its portability. You should be able to easily lift or move the appliance in question with minimal hassles. Otherwise, it would be inconvenient to use it.

Some air purifiers are as light as eight pounds, while others weigh more than 20 pounds. Usually, higher-capacity devices tend to be heavier. Select one that balances performance and portability for the best results.

Usability

In the era of technology, many air purifiers offer smart features to enhance ease of use. And these features will help to improve your convenience.

For example, some devices have auto modes that detect air quality and adjust fan speeds accordingly. Others have remote-controlled sensors that allow you to make air purification adjustments from a distance.

Other attractive features include LED panels that enable you to control settings from one point, child lock mechanisms to prevent interference from pets and children and filter replacement indicators.

air purifier vs ionizer

HEPA Filter vs Ionizer vs UV Light

A HEPA filter is a filter that traps at least 99.97% of pollutants in the air as small as 0.3 microns. UV light is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a medium wavelength that kills organic matter, such as viruses, bacteria, and some types of molds.

And an ionizer is a device that charges the air particles and causes them to clump and stick to a designated surface to improve air quality. However, it works best on small but not big particles, such as tobacco smoke. Also, it is ineffective against odors and gases.

Best Air Purifier for Mold FAQs

What Type of Air Purifier is Best for Mold?

The best air purifier for mold has a multi-stage filtration process, including an H13 HEPA filter and Carbon filter. Additional benefits include a negative ionizer which helps enlarge particles less than 0.1 microns, and UV-C light to penetrate and destroy mold, bacteria, and viruses.

Will Air Purifiers Help with Mold?

Air purifiers with H13 HEPA filters are the best at capturing the most airborne mold, bacteria, and viruses. Air purifiers will not help remove mold, bacteria, or viruses on surfaces.

Is a Dehumidifier or Air Purifier Better for Mold?

Dehumidifiers and air purifiers do different tasks. Dehumidifiers help control mold by removing moisture from the air and reducing humidity to below 50%. Air purifiers do not control humidity but can clean the air to remove airborne mold spores, bacteria, or viruses.

Dehumidifiers reduce relative humidity below 50%, creating an environment that is not conducive to mold growth. However, that does not mean mold spores are not still airborne, which can cause respiratory issues. It is often best to use a dehumidifier and an air purifier if you are sensitive to allergens.

What Kind of Air Purifier Do I Need for Mold?

We recommend an air purifier for mold with medical-grade filtration. You should select a medical-grade air purifier that suits your coverage area. For large coverage areas or multiple floors, you may need multiple air purifiers for full coverage. We included both large and small coverage air purifiers on our list of best air purifiers for mold.

What Certifications Should an Air Purifier for Mold Have?

There are no specific mold certifications for air purifiers. The most recognized certifications for air purifiers include the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM), which verifies and sets the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) for air purifiers.

Photo of author

Hubert Miles

I've been conducting home inspections for 17 years. I'm a licensed Home Inspector, Certified Master Inspector (CMI), and FHA 203k Consultant. I started HomeInspectionInsider.com to help people better understand the home inspection process and answer questions about homeownership and home maintenance.
DISCLAIMER: The content published on HomeInspectionInsider.com is not professional advice. You should consult with a licensed professional and check local permit requirements before starting any project.
HomeInspectionInsider.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. We also participate in other affiliate programs with other affiliate sites. We are compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies.